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Gerakan Pramuka is the national Scouting organization of Indonesia. Scouting was founded in the Dutch East Indies in 1912, and Indonesia became a member of the World Organization of the Scout Movement (WOSM) in 1953. It has 8,054,968 members (as of 2004), making it the world's largest Scout association.
Scouting came to Indonesia in 1912, as a branch of the Netherlands Scout Movement. It was called the Nederland Indische Padvinders Vereeniging (Netherlands Indies Scout Movement). Other Scouting organizations were established by the Indonesia Scouts in 1916. As the Dutch East Indies, Indonesia had been a branch of the Netherlands Scout Association, yet Scouting was very popular, and had achieved great numbers and standards.
When Indonesia became an independent country, there were more than 60 separate Boy Scout and Girl Guide organizations. Most were directly affiliated with some certain political parties or social groups. Attempts were made to unify all Scout organizations into one.
The thousands of islands made administration and supervision difficult, and the Japanese occupation caused some twenty separate Scout organizations to spring up, and it took time for them to coalesce. In September 1951 thirteen of the stronger Scout organizations met and decided to found a federating body to satisfy national and international needs. Ikatan Pandu Indonesia - Ipindo for short - came into being. Tuan Soemardjo was elected chief commissioner, and Doctor Bahder Djohan, an old Scout and Minister of Education, became honorary President. Government approval of Ipindo was granted on February 22, 1952, and president Sukarno consented to become Patron of the unifying and correlating National Scout Council. Indonesia has been a member of WOSM since 1953.
This resulted in the establishment of a single Scout Movement in Indonesia called "Gerakan Pramuka". In May of 1961, the President of Indonesia signed a regulation making Gerakan Pramuka the official Scout organization in Indonesia.
Gerakan Pramuka is a former member of the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts, having left WAGGGS and joined WOSM also for the girls in 2002.
After Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX, other Indonesian recipients of the Bronze Wolf, the only distinction of the World Organization of the Scout Movement, awarded by the World Scout Committee for exceptional services to world Scouting, include Abdul Azis Saleh in 1978, John Beng Kiat Liem in 1982 and Retired Lieutenant General Mashudi in 1985.
The Indonesia Scout Movement incorporates both boys and girls. It is an educational movement through Scouting activities, the education being directed toward a new, just, peaceful and prosperous Indonesian community based on the national ideology. Activities of the boys and girls are conducted separately from one another. They have joint activities whenever possible and necessary. Management of the Scout Movement is carried out by the National Headquarters.
Education for young members is carried out through activities to achieve General Skill Requirements (GSR) and Special Skill Requirements (SSR) (merit badge system) towards achieving Garuda Scout.
To achieve the goals of Scouting, activities are carried out on the group and national level. Routine activities are focused on the development of character, patriotism, physical fitness, skill and intelligence of the Scouts themselves which are very important for their future life. Activities of the special troops are organized in order to develop specific personal interest and talent and enable them to serve the community with the knowledge, ability and skill he/she have learned.
The Scouts take an active part in community development service projects. They take an active part in combating literacy. The success of the campaign against literacy in one province, gained the Scouts worldwide recognition and won them a UNESCO award.
The Scouts also participate in the drive to improve health and nutrition in the community, especially children under five years of age. Acting as extension workers, they practice how to raise cattle, fish, breed hens and grow vegetables.
Gerakan Pramuka is divide in two major educational groups: the member section and the adult section. The first is divided in further age-groups with different educational systems, the second provides the leaders and supports the younger members.
The age-groups are:
- Cub Scouts (Siaga) – ages 7 to 10
- Siaga Mula
- Siaga Bantu
- Siaga Tata
- Scouts (Penggalang) – ages 11 to 15
- Penggalang Ramu
- Penggalang Rakit
- Penggalang Terap
- Rover Scouts – ages 16 to 21
- Pandega – ages 22 to 26
- Adult members – ages 26 and older or married
Activities are mainly carried out to archive advancement through the General Skill Requirements (TKU) and Tanda Kecakapan Khusus or Merit Badge system. The highest rank in each age group is Pramuka Garuda (Eagle Scout).
Special Scout troops
In Pramuka, there are special troops for Rover Scout called Satuan Karya (SAKA). There are seven different troops:
- Law Enforcement Scouts Troop (Saka Bhayangkara)
- Air Scouts Troop (Saka Dirgantara)
- Sea and Maritime Scouts Troop (Saka Bahari)
- Health service Scouts Troop (Saka Bhakti Husada)
- Family Scouts Troop (Saka Kencana)
- Agriculture Scouts Troop (Saka Taruna Bumi)
- Forest Preserve Scouts Troop (Saka Wana Bhakti)
Scout Law (Dasa Dharma)
- Believe in God the Almighty
- Preserve nature and love each other
- Be an affable and knightly patriot
- Be obedient and collegial
- Help others with compliance and resilience
- Be diligent, skilled and cheerful
- Be provident and simple
- Exercise discipline, be brave and faithful
- Be accountable and trustworthy
- Have purity in mind, word and act
Scout Oath (Tri satya)
On My Honour , I promise to
- Fulfill my obligation to the God , to the Republic of Indonesia , and to obey Pancasila
- Help Other people and get involved in build the community
- Obey The Scout Law.
International units in Indonesia
- In addition, there are American Boy Scouts in Jakarta and Balikpapan, linked to the Direct Service branch of the Boy Scouts of America, which supports units around the world.
- Official website Template:Id icon
- Scouting 'Round the World, John S. Wilson, first edition, Blandford Press 1959
Members of the Asia-Pacific Scout Region
Full members: Australia | Bangladesh | Bhutan | Brunei | Republic of China (Taiwan) | Fiji | Hong Kong | India | Indonesia | Japan | Kiribati | South Korea | Malaysia | Maldives | Mongolia | Nepal | New Zealand | Pakistan | Papua New Guinea | Philippines | Singapore | Sri Lanka | Thailand